Incomplete Rehabilitation or Physiological failure of Hamstring tear

Reinjury rates after acute hamstring injuries are reported to range from 14% to 63% within the same playing season or up to 2 years after the initial injury. Despite relatively high reinjury risk after hamstring injuries, there is a lack of exact knowledge about their severity, location, and timing. Thus far, the location and severity,…

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Management and Prevention of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by loss of bone mass, reduced bone mineral density, and deterioration of bone microarchitecture, which lead to bone fragility. Bisphosphonates that are currently approved by the FDA for the prevention or treatment (or both) of osteoporosis include alendronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and zoledronic acid. This review discusses the rationale for…

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Stress fractures in Royal Marines training

Though the incidence of stress fractures in the military is almost half of that of elite athletes (12% vs 21%), recruits who sustain stress fractures are four times more likely to be discharged from training programs and are at a higher risk for sustaining a subsequent stress fracture. Rehabilitation from stress fractures requires personnel and…

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Patellofemoral Pain: What do phenotypic features show?

Ninety percent of patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP), a chronic musculoskeletal disorder characterized by anterior knee pain, are still in pain 4 years after the initial diagnosis. Specialists have optimized management of other chronic musculoskeletal conditions by subgrouping patients based on risk factors. While previous studies aimed to categorize patients based on imaging studies, this…

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Measuring the hydrodynamic profiles of swimmer’s

A hydrodynamic profile, which is primarily composed of drag force, effects a swimmer’s performance; therefore, coaches, swimmers and sports analysts are keenly interested in the components of drag. Drag force is effected by intrinsic properties of water and the swimmer, decreasing acceleration. Drag is composed of active and passive drag. Passive drag, the focus of…

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How much does visual distraction effect torso position in side-stepping

side stepping

An important steering task in team sports is cutting and side-stepping (SS), a maneuver performed to evade oncoming opponents. Sidestepping during game situations is complex, as athletes are generally traveling at higher velocities and often required to sidestep under unpredictably high temporal constraints when responding to opponents’ defensive movements or other situational demands. Frontal plane…

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Technical difference’s in Volleyball players show shoulder anatomical adaptation


In elite volleyball players, repetitive spiking unevenly burdens the (DOM) dominant shoulder, which can result in adaptations or injuries. Spiking consists of the cocking, acceleration and deceleration phases. In the cocking phase, the dominant arm abducts and externally rotates in preparation for forceful adduction and internal rotation in the acceleration phase. Finally, the hand decelerates…

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Is Hip Surgery Unnecessary for CAM/FAI?


Hip and groin injuries are extremely common in ice hockey players, with a reported incidence of 19.87 injuries per 100 players at the elite level. Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) has been increasingly recognized as a cause of hip pain in athletes at all levels of competition. Numerous studies have found an increased prevalence of FAI in…

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Does Bench Press improve performance in 50m swimming?


To improve strength and power, top-level swimmers commonly execute traditional strength exercises (i.e., bench press and squat) on dry-land. It is assumed that the training adaptations resulting from these nonspecific strategies are able to enhance swimming performance. Therefore, it is interesting to ascertain which dry-land testing and training methods provide results more closely related to…

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