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The shoulder is the most frequent site of pain  and time loss injury  in swimmers, In all cohorts, shoulder pain prevalence in swimmers is high, increasing with time in the sport and may range from 40 to 91% depending on the age group and definition. The quest for risk factors include range of shoulder rotation…

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Measures of body mass such as weight and body mass index (BMI) have long been practically used as a measure for the prediction of health risks and outcomes. Although of some value, these measurements do not address an individual’ s variability in body composition (i.e. lean versus adipose tissue). Abnormalities in body composition such as low…

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